To understand the characteristics of the volcanic soil of the Vulture area, it is necessary to observe the excavations visible in the pozzolanic quarries. The present stratigraphy is the story of what has happened over the millennia to date. The eruptions of the volcano in a primordial phase occurred in the middle and upper Pleistocene caused effluvia of torrential waters and large boulders. The first eruption of the Vulture dates back to about 700,000 years ago while the formation of the volcanic cone dates back to about 600,000 years ago. The last eruption occurred 130,000 years ago and was the one that gave rise to the first crater where today we can observe the Lakes of Monticchio. The compaction of the ash formed banks of tufa covered by layers of volcanic lapilli. These are the main components that determine the extraordinary characteristics of Vulture wines..